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Because the students are only drawing on one text, attribution and citation are generally reserved for direct quotes. In college, however, students move beyond summarizing individual texts and into the more complicated realm of synthesizing ideas from a variety of sources.

They are expected to read and research beyond the confines of a single book, chapter, or essay, and to use critical thinking skills to weigh different arguments, compare and contrast conflicting viewpoints, and weigh in with their own analysis of the issue or subject. This requires carefully delineating one’s own words and ideas from those found elsewhere, keeping track of numerous sources, and using proper citation and attribution styles, which can vary from discipline to discipline.

Summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting directly from sources are now integrated into writing that also requires students to express their own ideas. And that, understandably, adds up to a far more complicated and potentially confusing process. Facts, ideas, and language that are distinct and unique products of a particular individual’s work do not count as common knowledge and must always be cited.

One of the first areas of confusion regarding plagiarism that students coming from high school to college are apt to confront is the question of what constitutes common knowledge and, therefore, does not require attribution.

In general, simple factual information and common expressions are not subject to plagiarism restrictions; however, complex ideas, analyses, opinions, and interpretations are subject, and should be cited.

It’s not foolproof, but it’s helpful in understanding the difference between what is and isn’t common knowledge. The Wikipedia. Those facts are all part of the public record and can rightly be considered common knowledge, even if they’re not the sort of thing one would be expected to know off the top of his or her head. But, his estimated net worth as of five billion is attributed to Forbes magazine, because it’s specific information that might be disputable. One could argue that the detail about the sale is also potentially common knowledge, but it never hurts to cite a source.

One of the common areas of confusion and misunderstanding for students wrestling with the concept of plagiarism is paraphrasing and summarization. Both are useful strategies in writing when used properly. Here’s a useful rule of thumb: If you find yourself changing a few words here and there in someone else’s writing, tinkering with a text in the hopes of making it your own, you’re asking for trouble.

What you’ll end up with may not be word-for-word copying, but you’re still stealing the thoughts, ideas, and formulations of another writer, and that’s plagiarism. Additionally, it also may not amount to a successful paraphrase or summary. Either way, it does require a citation. Paraphrasing involves reformulating a quote or restating a premise or point taken from a discrete section of text for the purposes of clarity or style.

It can be useful for simplifying overly technical language, for updating antiquated language, or for bringing into sharper focus a specific concept or idea raised by the author. A summary takes a larger section of text, perhaps even an entire chapter or essay, and boils it down into one or several key points that have specific relevance.

As a result, a paraphrase is often roughly the same length as the original text, while a summary is always significantly shorter. It is impossible to read Huck Finn intelligently without understanding that Mark Twain’s consciousness and awareness is larger than that of any of the characters in the novel, including Huck. Indeed, part of what makes the book so effective is the fact that Huck is too innocent and ignorant to understand what’s wrong with his society and what’s right about his own transgressive behavior.

Twain, on the other hand, knows the score. One must be skeptical about most of what Huck says in order to hear what Twain is saying. It’s hard to read Huck Finn without understanding that the author’s consciousness is bigger than any of the book’s characters, even Huck. One of the things that make the novel so good is that Huck remains blind both to the ills of his society and to the things that are good about his own rebellious behavior.

Twain communicates this, and the reader has to listen past Huck’s words to hear what Twain really means to say. In her essay on teaching Huck Finn, Dr. Shelly Fisher Fishkin emphasizes the importance of viewing Huck’s actions, words, and thoughts through the lens of the author, because Twain understood what Huck never could about the virtues of transgressing against unjust societal norms.

In music, sampling refers to a process by which bits and pieces of existing song compositions are cut and pasted together into new works. Even as this sonic collage technique has gained respectability, it’s remained controversial, primarily because it’s not entirely clear what is and isn’t permissible under current laws governing copyright, licensing, and authorial ownership. A writing technique in which a writer weaves together material from several different sources, almost word-for-word, with his or her own words and ideas, and fails to acknowledge or cite the original sources.

The result is a mixture of plagiarized material and original content. The question is, does patchwriting amount to plagiarism? Or, is it something else? Even the experts aren’t certain. We have come to think of patchwriting as an unsuccessful attempt at paraphrasing. It could be: a writer could deliberately patchwrite rather than go to the trouble of paraphrasing successfully. In our own experiences as writers, teachers, and adjudicators of plagiarism cases, however, we believe it seldom is.

Another, perhaps more useful way of conceptualizing patchwriting is as a kind of collage of source material that doesn’t include much in the way of insight or original writing from the student author. Think of it as stringing together quotes from various sources without providing context or synthesis. Even if the sources are properly cited, the result won’t be a very good paper. Many students—and non-students—get confused about the difference between plagiarism and copyright infringement.

Copyright gives an owner several exclusive rights under the federal Copyright Act. According to the U. Copyright Office, those rights include:.

An individual who does any of the above without receiving permission from the copyright owner may be liable for infringement. All rights apply to both published and unpublished works.

There are a number of different ways to formally cite sources in academic works and in the publishing world outside of academia. Depending on the professor, the discipline, and the institutional policies, footnotes, endnotes, or parenthetical citations may be preferred. For the purposes of avoiding plagiarism, the key is simply to make sure sources are clearly cited one way or another. Losing points for style may not be ideal, but it beats being brought up on plagiarism charges.

Let’s review the key ways in which plagiarism usually surfaces, using the Harvard College Writing Program’s Guide to Using Sources as a guide. We’ll use this section of text from Dr. Something new happened in Huck Finn that had never happened in American literature before. It was a book, as many critics have observed, that served as a Declaration of Independence from the genteel English novel tradition.

Huckleberry Finn allowed a different kind of writing to happen: a clean, crisp, no-nonsense, earthy vernacular kind of writing that jumped off the printed page with unprecedented immediacy and energy; it was a book that talked. Huck’s voice, combined with Twain’s satiric genius, changed the shape of fiction in America, and African-American voices had a great deal to do with making it what it was. Huck Finn changed the shape of fiction in America.

It allowed for a new type of writing to happen, independent of the genteel English novel tradition. Questions of cultural identity. Title, Place Published : Publisher.

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